Most eye diseases are asymptomatic, meaning that they do not usually show any noticeable symptoms until they have caused serious, irreparable damage to the eye.

Through regular eye examinations, we can monitor your eye health to detect and track any changes that could be early indicators of disease.

Request an appointment for your next eye exam today.


The optic nerve is responsible for transferring information from the eye to the brain, where it can be processed. Glaucoma is a disease that causes permanent damage to the optic nerve, resulting in vision loss. There are different types of glaucoma.


Open-angle glaucoma occurs when the aqueous humour does not drain properly from the anterior chamber, causing the intraocular pressure to rise and damage the optic nerve. In cases of open-angle glaucoma, the angle between the cornea and the iris is wide enough to facilitate drainage, but there may be a blockage in the eye’s drainage canals.

Open-angle glaucoma is the most common form of the disease, and it usually develops very gradually.


Acute angle-closure glaucoma occurs when the angle between the cornea and the iris is very narrow and suddenly closes, preventing the aqueous humour from draining out of the anterior chamber. As the anterior chamber continues to fill, the intraocular pressure rises, damaging the optic nerve.

This type of glaucoma occurs very suddenly and is often accompanied by the following symptoms:

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Severe eye pain
  • Headache
  • Excessive tearing
  • Blurry vision
  • Glare or halos around light

Acute angle-closure glaucoma is a medical emergency. If you experience these symptoms, seek medical attention immediately.


Normal tension glaucoma occurs when both the drainage canals and the angle between the iris and the cornea are open, facilitating the appropriate flow, yet the optic nerve still sustains damage. Patients with this type of glaucoma do not have elevated intraocular pressure.

The cause of normal tension glaucoma is currently unknown, however, the disease can still be detected early through advanced diagnostics, and, when caught, can be treated.


The macula is the detail-sensitive area of the retina responsible for central vision and color, which allows you to read words and recognize faces. Age-related macular degeneration (or AMD) is a disease that damages the macula. When the macula becomes damaged, it can cause serious visual disturbances, and eventually, may lead to loss of central vision.

AMD appears in two forms: dry AMD and wet AMD.


Dry AMD occurs when deposits called drusen collect under the macula. As more and more drusen form, the macula becomes permanently damaged, resulting in central vision loss.


Wet AMD occurs due to weakened blood vessels that can start to leak with age causing retinal and macular scarring. This macular scar tissue results in central vision loss.


As you age, your eye’s natural lens starts to restructure, becoming cloudy with time. A cloudy lens is called a cataract, and causes blurry vision, faded colors and difficulties driving at night.

Everyone will develop cataracts eventually. Typically cataracts are treated with a stronger prescription and occasionally, low vision aids. When these strategies are no longer effective, cataracts can be surgically removed.


Cataract surgery is relatively simple and highly effective. Using a small, ultrasonic device, the ophthalmologist breaks the natural lens into small pieces, removing them through an incision in the eye. The natural lens is replaced with an artificial lens, restoring clarity and color to the patient’s vision.


Conjunctivitis (also known as pink eye) is a term used to describe an inflammation of the conjunctiva; the mucous membrane covering the surface of the eye. This inflammation can come from a number of sources, including bacterial or viral infections, or allergic reactions.

The treatment for conjunctivitis depends entirely on what triggered the inflammation. Be sure to see your Optometrist for an official diagnosis before trying to self-treat pink eye, even if you have had it before.


Symptoms of conjunctivitis may include:

  • Swelling
  • Redness
  • Stinging or itching
  • Excessive tears
  • Sticky yellow or whitish discharge
  • Sensitivity to light


Early detection is the key to preventing vision loss due to disease. SJEA is uniquely equipped with a range of highly advanced imaging and diagnostic technology, which allows us to identify potential eye problems, sometimes years before you even notice symptoms.

Read more about the technology available at SJEA.